1) 1992, 12 kW Curugagung MHP, West Java
2) 1993, 20 kW Cibitung MHP, West Java
3) 1993, 16 kW Cikalong MHP, West Java
4) 1994, 60 kW Padasuka MHP, West Java
5) 1994, 20 kW Prabugantungan MHP, West Java
6) 1995, 30 kW Cupunagara MHP, West Java
7) 1995, 30 kW Suliki MHP, West Sumatera
8) 1996, 20 kW Bantarsari MHP, West Java
9) 1996, 30 kW Simanau MHP, West Sumatera
10) 1996, 60 kW Sa’dan Ulusalu MHP, South Sulawesi
11) 1997, 60 kW Cicemet MHP, West Java
12) 1997, 35 kW Batu Bejanjang MHP, West Sumatera
13) 1998, 5 kW Citalahab MHP, West Java
14) 1998, 85 kW Ciganas MHP, West Java
15) 1999, 46 kW Ta’ba MHP, South Sulawesi
16) 1999, 64 kW Tendan Dua MHP, South Sulawesi
17) 1999, 13 kW, Bokin MHP, South Sulawesi
18) 1999, 15 kW, Waikilosawa MHP, East Nusa Tenggara
19) 1999, 11.6 kWp Solar PV Clean Water Pumping, Kamanggih, East Nusa Tenggara
20) 2000, 31 kW Sukaramai MHP, South Bengkulu
21) 2000, 5 kW Cikaniki MHP, West Java
22) 2000, 50 kw Kukusan MHP, Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara
23) 2001, 80 kW, Leyte MHP, Mahagnao, Philippines
24) 2002, 34 kW Leuwijamang MHP, West Java
25) 2003, 39 kW Masanda MHP, South Sulawesi
26) 2004, 23 kW Sipin MHP, South Sumatera
27) 2004, 33 kW Cisalimar MHP, West Java
28) 2004, 120 kW Pilot Project Cinta Mekar MHP, West Java
29) 2005, 30 kW Rimba Candi MHP, South Sumatera
30) 2005, 10 kW Tanjung Harapan MHP, South Sumatera
31) 2005, 224 kW Ulu Danau MHP, South Sumatera
32) 2005, 29 kW Lintong MHP, North Sumatera
33) 2005, 10 kW Palanggaran MHP, West Java
34) 2006, 40 kW Krueng Kalla MHP, Aceh Besar
35) 2007, 80 kW Bungin, Enrekang MHP, South Sulawesi
36) 2007, Cows Fattening and Biogas Plant for Rural Economic Development, Bantul District,Yogyakarta
37) 2007, Community Based Water Saving,Kerta Rahayu Sub Village, Setu Village, Bekasi, West Java
38) 2008, 40 kW Jambur Gele MHP, Nangroe Aceh Darusalam (NAD)
39) 2009, 500 kW AIH NUSO MHP, Nangroe Aceh Darusalam (NAD)
40) 2009, 5 kW Kampung Sawah MHP, West Java
41) 2009, 5 kW Kampung Cibadak MHP, West Java
42) 2009, 5 kW Bojong Cisono MHP, West Java
43) 2009, 5 kW Cigoler MHP, West Java
44) 2009, 5 kW Ciawi MHP, West Java
45) 2009, 5 kW Leuwi Gede MHP, West Java
46) 2009, 5 kW Cisuren Bawah MHP, West Java
47) 2009, 5 kW Cisuren Tengah MHP, West Java
48) 2010, 20 kW Maulo-Manuno MHP, Timor Leste
49) 2010, 170 kW Banyu Biru MHP, Central Java
50) 2010, 60 kW Long Bang MHP, East Kalimantan
51) 2010, 5 kW Cengkuk MHP, West Java
52) 2010, 0.5 kW Cisuren Atas-1 Pico Hydro, Sukabumi, West Java
53) 2010, 0.5 kW Cisuren Atas-2 Pico Hydro,
54) 2010, 0.5 kW Cisuren Atas-3 Pico Hydro,
55) 2010, 0.5 kW Cisuren Atas-4 Pico Hydro,
56) 2010, 0.5 kW Cengkuk Babakan Pico Hydro,
57) 2010, 0.5 kW Cinala Pico Hydro,
58) 2010, 0.5 kW Lebak Kirai Pico Hydro,
59) 2010, 0.5 kW Pangkalan Pico Hydro,
60) 2010, 0.5 kW Bambu Kuning Pico Hydro, Sukabumi, West Java
61) 2010, 0.5 kW Cilanggar Pico Hydro, Sukabumi, West Java
62) 2011, 12.7 kW Curug Deyut MHP, West Java
63) 2011, 37 kW MBakuhau MHP, Sumba
64) 2012, 6.4 kW Sukamulya MHP, Sukabumi, West Java
65) 2012, 50 kW Mandiri MHP, Cibadak, Sukabumi, West Java
66) 2012, 35 kW Pelakat MHP, South Sumatera
67) 2012, 100 kW Ciganas-I MHP Upgrade, West Java
68) 2013, 12 kW Wind Turbine, Kalihi, Kamanggih, East Sumba, NTT
69) 2013, 11.5 kW Wind Turbine, Palindi, Kamanggih, East Sumba, NTT
70) 2014, 24kW Wind Turbine, Tana Rara, Maubokul, East Sumba, NTT
71) 2014, 2.5 kW Wind Turbine, Kilimbatu, Kamanggih, East Sumba, NTT
72) 2014, 36 kW Komipo MHP, Situmurni, Sukabumi West Java
73) 2015, Clean Water Supply, Umbu Rundi, East Sumba, NTT
74) 2015, Sub-District Bridge Infrastructure, Laimbonga, East Sumba, NTT
75) 2016, 1.25 kWp Solar PV Pumping System for Irrigation System, Daudere, Republic Democratica Timor Leste
76) 2016, 2 kWp Solar PV System for Aquaponics, Public School, Lautem, Republic Democratica Timor Leste
77) 2016, 2 kWp Solar PV System for Aquaponics, Uai Oli - Health Post, Republic Democratica Timor Leste
78) 2016, 1 kWp Solar PV System for Aquaponics, Epitipe, Republic Democratica Timor Leste
79) 2016, 1 kWp Solar PV System for Aquaponics, Upper Com, Republic Democratica Timor Leste
80) 2016, 1.5 kWp Solar PV System for Aquaponics, Lower Com, Republic Democratica Timor Leste
81) 2017-2018, 30.72 kW Centralized Solar PV System, An Nuqayah islamic boarding school, Madura, West Java
82) 2017-2018, 15.36 kW Centralized Solar PV System, SMAN 8 (High School), Malang, West Java
83) 2017-2018, 65 kW Kalilang MHP, Madutolung-Kambata Bundung-Meu Rumba-Meo Ramba, East Sumba, NTT
84) 2017-2018, Knowledge Center, Kamanggih, East Sumba, NTT
85) 2017-2018, Small Industry Center, Kamanggih, East Sumba, NTT
86) 2017-2018, 22kW Irrigation Pump, Maubokul, East Sumba, NTT
87) 2017-2018, 95 kW Kamanjara MHP, Maubokul, East Sumba, NTT
88) 2019, 27.75 kW Solar PV Pump Clean Water Supply, Kedung Ombo, Central Java
Long history of IBEKA in Sumba Island
IBEKA has been working on rural electrification in Indonesia since 1992. In Sumba Island, IBEKA started the community development project in 1999 in Kamanggih Village, Sumba Timur Regency, installing 11.6 kWp solar powered clean water pumping system.
Sumba Island lies on the Southern border of Indonesia. It is one of the islands in the East Nusa Tenggara province with an area of 10,710 km². In the east lies the Savu Sea and the Indian Ocean to the south and west. Sumba people still have difficulties in accessing water and electricity. Hot and dry climates, coupled with a stretched savanna and limestone soils of former ocean plains, make water sources very difficult to find. In 2019, according to Indonesian meteorological and geophysical agency, it is reported that the area with the longest day without rain is in East Sumba with 249 days without rain. Moreover, the topography is amazing with hills and valleys stretching throughout the island. As men mainly work in construction and livestock farming , women who are responsible for domestic works and have to walk many kilometers, going up and down the hill to bring water to their homes. The children also help getting the water and are forced to abandon school activities . The scattered settlements of the community bring more challenge in the effort of providing centralized water procurement system for people.
Most people in Sumba also have no access to electricity. The villagers use kerosene lamps for lighting, which is difficult and expensive to get from outside the village. In 2012, Sumba the Iconic Island Program was initiated by HIVOS, an international NGO from The Netherlands, and the Government of Indonesia. The program aims for 100% electrification of Sumba Island using renewable energy resources in 2025. It is one of the Government's efforts to create equitable development in the outermost islands and underdeveloped areas through increase access to sustainable energy. IBEKA is one of the participants in Sumba Iconic Island Program. Currently, IBEKA has installed four micro hydro power plants, three small scale wind turbines facility, built two clean water systems and bridge infrastructure with beneficiaries covering 11 villages in West Sumba Regency and East Sumba Regency.
IBEKA solution for rural electrification and economic empowerment
The solution offered by IBEKA utilizes micro hydro as an entry point to promote economic empowerment of the community. While bringing electricity access from local and renewable resource, IBEKA also comes with capacity building program. Forming local organization who will maintain the facility, conducting training to strengthen technical and managerial aspect in order to ensure the sustainability of the facility as well as empower the community to be independent society, enable them to fulfill their needs in a subsistent manner. The electricity will help women and children to save time in domestic works leading more time for productive activities such as studying for school and creating home handcrafts to sell. Agriculture activities and processing harvest will also be easier and more economical that lead to better livelihood for society.
IBEKA also realizes that a micro hydro power plant development project is not only about construction and technical matters. It includes the process of social engineering. In Sumba context where social strata exist and women have more responsibilities regarding domestic works, the project should lead to achieving gender equality and diminishing the gap between social strata.
Recent projects in Sumba and success story of IBEKA approach
In 2018, funded by MCA-Indonesia, IBEKA completed two micro hydro power plants in East Sumba Regency, bringing electricity to 353 households in 4 villages. Other than lighting, the electricity is also used for irrigation pump for agriculture.
There were many lessons learned from the project concerning so many aspects. For instance, the ritual of indigenous people in the project location needs to be complied throughout the whole process. With most of the local people adhere to the Marapu belief there are rituals that need to be done during the starting the phase of construction. Completing all of the necessary rituals is the way IBEKA paying respect and getting support for the project.
The ritual ceremony uses chicken eggs and chicken that is slaughtered for the elders to foresee if the planned activities will run smoothly and safely. If the result is bad, the ritual needs to be repeated and adding sacrificial animal (goat or pig or buffalo) for offering. When the community worked together to lift MHP heavy equipment from the main road to the construction site using a ‘wooden boat’, they did it while saying a prayer in ancient Sumba song. A prayer for a heavy burden to be light. This ‘wooden boat’ usually used for transporting sarcophagus in a funeral.
Due to the emerging focus of the central government on renewable energy, many more and complicated regulation were established that was not yet synchronized with the implementation on the local government level. IBEKA has successfully pushed several government institutions to have coordination meeting especially held to accelerate the process of completing legal requirements and support the project.
People in Sumba are also divided by four social strata, Ratu the highest group of existing social structures, Maramba the noble class, Kabihu the independent class, and Ata referred to the servant group, which means it can be commanded by the noble class. Based on these conditions, the approach taken by IBEKA is to give opportunity for the marginalized group in the community to participate in the development process. It is never an option to determine beneficiaries based on social strata. There is even a targeted threshold number that the marginalized group and women needs to be involved in every phase of the project. The community was involved in starting from the planning of activities that will be carried out together until the implementation through individual approach, informal meetings and “live in” method.
Public decision-making process and stakeholder engagement about every aspect of the facility is important. There were times that some people threatened to boycott the construction because they are not getting the electricity due to technical problems. IBEKA managed to overcome this situation by discussing with informal leader in the society to find solution, such as using village fund allocation to build longer transmission lines or persuading the people to move their houses closer to the distribution lines. It takes continuous plan and action concerning conflict management.
IBEKA had built renewable energy facilities powered by solar, wind and micro-hydro in Kamanggih area. Moreover, IBEKA also built Knowledge Center equipped with models of renewable energy power plants for educational purpose for students and general visitors who wants to learn about renewable energy. Kamanggih has been a model for “village with green energy” and further to be developed as educational tourist destination.
IBEKA strives to contribute more in increasing electrification ratio in Sumba Island and involve in future projects of community empowerment. With the improved quality of life, Sumba Island would be a true manifestation of equitable development model to be replicated for all Indonesian people in many other disadvantaged regions.
IBEKA Gender Inclusive Approach in Sumba
In 2018, IBEKA completed two micro hydro power plants (MHP) installation in East Sumba, 95 kW Kamanjara MHP in Maubokul Village and 65 kW Kalilang MHP in Kambata Bundung Village. IBEKA managed to promote gender inclusion in the development process. IBEKA encouraged the marginalized elements of the community, in Sumba context are women and ‘Ata’ or servant community group, to participate in the community meetings. IBEKA conducted women only informal meetings in order to give opportunity for the women to be brave and practice expressing their opinion in the forum.
IBEKA also motivated the women to be in the management team of the cooperative. Some of the technical operators are chosen from Ata social group. They are being very active participants in the technical and management seminars and trainings.
The women also joined the community activities when they moved the generator weighed 800 kg manually utilizing a very large stem of a tree, the same way they do to move sarcophagus for funeral. It was a very impressive moment when the community joined hands to open 2,6 km of road access to Kalilang MHP, attended by a total of 398 people, consisting of 132 women and 266 men.
The women voices heard in the community meetings:
“We expect that electricity can improve our life, children can study comfortably, read books without damaging the eyes, put lighting in our vegetables garden so that the plants are not destructed by wild animals.” (Mama Margaretha)
“We need to form women's groups to do group activities such as sell handicrafts and social gathering in order to have group saving for buying electronics.”
“Suppose there is no meeting for women conducted by IBEKA, maybe we are now just being busy in the kitchen. We look forward for upcoming meeting, please invite us. All activities in the village also need to involve women. So that women do not merely agree with the decisions taken at every meeting in the village but also take part in making decisions.”
“The MHP development project has helped women also in the future life. What has been heard today is not only heard but also applied. We wish that the project will not be hampered until the finishing stage.”
IBEKA also held special meetings for the women from the lowest strata, Ata, in Kamanggih Village. The meetings aimed to provide a forum for the women to build self-confidence and raise their enthusiasm to be involved in activities related to Knowledge Center built in the village. We invite them to draw, write and speak with regard to experiences as women. The method is called 'River of Life'. The women were asked to tell story of their life journey from childhood to the present in a picture describing series of important events. Each participant presented the picture to the forum. One of the participants told her story that she went through tough time due to arranged marriage according to local culture. After that incident, she decided to re-marry a man of her own choice. But the second marriage was not approved by her parents because he who could not afford to pay for “belis” or dowry. Until her parents die, they have never met her and her children. This meeting also revealed that some of the women experienced problems during childbirth that lead to miscarriage or the child died as a baby. The women hoped that there will be more meetings like this so they can learn more.
Realizing that the role of women is very important in supporting the family health matters and life expectancy, IBEKA ensures of embedding gender inclusion into community empowerment projects. IBEKA will continue creating safe space for discussion especially for women from the low strata in order to gain more significant impact of increased health condition and safety.
Lesson Learned from Sumba
Our latest project in Sumba was the installation of a 95 kW Kamanjara micro hydro power plant (MHP) in Maubokul Village and 65 kW Kalilang MHP in Kambata Bundung Village in East Sumba Regency, bringing electricity access to 353 households in 4 villages. IBEKA also built irrigation pump using electricity from Kamanjara MHP and a small industry and knowledge center facilities for economic empowerment purpose. During the three years of the project (2015-2018), there are a lot of lessons learned from the process even though IBEKA has started the first project in Sumba in 1999.
The community response has been very positive since the beginning of this project. We can see their enthusiasm when the community worked together to open road access to the construction site on the rocky and steep hills manually for almost 4 km. Both men and women from various social strata and ages were involved. Since we experienced a delay in our construction schedule for almost a year, due to a very long and complicated process of completing legal requirements, it was a struggle to maintain trust and support of the community towards the project.
There were also many other technical issues that cause social conflict along the project. In the pre- feasibility study stage in late 2015, IBEKA had been approved to build 4 units of MHP for around 700 households of beneficiaries in 7 villages. In the latter stage before the construction, 2 units MHP construction plan was cancelled due to technical problems as there was not enough waterflow in the river during dry season, despite the community already working together to open the access road. This event then affected the people in the other villages to think that all of the project might be cancelled altogether. In addition to this, there were also villagers that would not get electricity since their homes are far from the planned distribution lines concerning technicalities and budget limitation.
IBEKA had been continuously working on a social approach to engage and empower the community. We facilitated discussion to look for win-win solutions for all of community elements. We also asked for funding opportunities from the local government to distribute electricity to all the houses in the surrounding village and persuading the villagers to move their knock-down houses closer to the electricity distribution lines in order to diminish social conflict. Empowering women and the lowest strata of society by conducting inclusive meetings, trainings, seminars. All preceded by informal meetings only for the marginalized group to give more opportunity for them to build self-confidence and voice their opinion. IBEKA consistently maintained interactions with the community to nurture their trust and enthusiasm including keeping the existing farmers groups rather than forming new one while losing community’s consent and interest.
IBEKA also identified local champions from the informal meetings that have the passion to work on sustaining the facility and the program by making demonstration plots for farming activities and learning about managing the system. Through our facilitators we managed to also get them involved in the following meetings and activities so that this effort of empowering community will be sustain on their own even after the construction project was finished.
Potential Economic Activities
Cashew nut is main commodity of East Sumba. When IBEKA suggested for the small industry project to produce roasted cashew, it was shocking that most of the women farmers never eaten roasted cashew. Apparently, they always sell the raw cashew to a middleman. It raised initiative from the women in one of the villages to produce roasted cashew and then sell it to nearby schools. Another thing, the women started to make anambola, a traditional small container made of palm leaves. These palm leaves are widely found in the area. Usually, palm leaves are sold to Bali Island as raw material, not as a woven product. In fact, quite a lot of women in East Sumba have weaving skills.
Enthusiasm of the community also shown on the irrigation project. When the irrigation facility construction was still ongoing, seeding of various kinds of vegetables has been carried out by the community, ready to be planted in each house backyard in the village that have no access to clean water. This village of Marada was selected as the location for the construction of water reservoir.
Attitude and behavioral changes can be seen from these findings. Some women were interested to participate in the learning process and appeared to negotiate with their husbands to join seminars and trainings conducted by IBEKA. It was followed by changes in men’s attitude that the husbands approved and ultimately support the wives' activities. While at the community level, a number of women's initiatives emerged in community meetings. They proposed to the village head to bring more people the joint activities. They also showed their good comprehension about renewable energy by explaining about the topic clearly in the forum. The women from lowest strata were happy to be involved in the meetings. They hoped to be invited to the next meeting. On the other hand, the attendees from the higher strata also had been used to sit together equally in a meeting.
The electricity itself has brought changes in daily activities. Before there was electricity, any productive activities would be done by 7 PM. After Kalilang MHP was operational, during the corn harvest period in Madutolung Village, women and men continued cleaning and sorting the maize at night, binding it to be stored as food supplies for the following year. The children were very excited to practice gospel singing at night. Likewise, adults can have meetings with the neighbors comfortably at night, fulfiling human needs as social being, interacting with others. Irrigation pump hopefully can boost the farming activities. In addition, small industry project of roasted cashew to strengthen local economy.
"Since the Dutch era, we live in darkness. Only after IBEKA came here, we can have electricity for free" said a 70 years old villager. IBEKA explained that metaphorically that IBEKA only provide a vehicle, but not the gasoline to operate the vehicle. The community understood it well. Since barter system is still acknowledges in East Sumba, the electricity fees can be paid with agricultural crops instead of money. Later the local organization or cooperative will do the conversion. Such initiatives are growing positive vibes in the community itself and motivate IBEKA to contribute more.
IBEKA’s Patriot Negeri in Berau, East Kalimantan
IBEKA executed Patriot Negeri program in Berau Regency in 2017-2018, a community empowerment program aimed for improvement on energy access, local food supply and environmental health. However, due to political contestation, the 5 year program had been cut to only one year implementation despite the significant achievement on the grass root level. It was realized that community have not utilized local resources optimally resulting in low prosperity level. One of the identified main obstacles is limited access to electricity. From 100 villages, more than 30% still have no access to reliable electricity access which hinders economic development. Villagers use portable generators, micro scale solar home system, and communal off-grid power plants. The effort on increasing electricity access were the first idea of Patriot Negeri initiative. However, the program had been relayed to the Empowerment Office since the Energy Office had been shut down and merged to the provincial government scope of work.
Berau Regency has extraordinary abundant potential local resources, from agriculture, fisheries, to tourism activities that is supported by the natural beautiful landscapes with rich biodiversity. Sangkulirang Mangkalihat Karst area with amazing steep and green hills and exotic underground caves. Merabu Village with ancient prehistoric hand printing on the cave walls, Kakaban Lake as one of the two places on earth with stingless jellyfish, unique Labuan Cermin Lake with mirror view and two-flavor water, salt and clear water separated in different layers and Talisayan village where we can swim with the whale sharks.
The signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Patriot Negeri Program was carried out on February 13, 2017. Patriot Negeri consist of 50 field personnel who lived with the community for one year in 57 villages and 5 field coordinator based in Tanjung Redeb. Patriot Negeri received training on renewable energy, organic agriculture, sanitation, and community empowerment principles in IBEKA training center for 3 weeks. Patriot Negeri personnel were selected from alumni of Patriot Energi program who had experience facilitating community empowerment activities in disadvantaged regions across Indonesia.
The first assignment of Patriot Negeri was participatory mapping. A prosper and resilient village can be realized by planning village development programs according to the needs of the community and extracting the potential of resources in the village to meet the needs of the community. This planning can only be done with the most up-to-date and accurate data on the condition and potential resources of the village. The process to get the data that is useful to answer the needs of the village community is called mapping activities. The results from mapping to data integration are called Village Information Systems. Mapping serves as a basis for developing potential resources database and ultimately developing village long-term development plans.
Village communities were the main actors of the mapping activities and the sole owners of the collected database, while Patriot Negeri acted as facilitators during data collection and processing. Participatory mapping activities will increased community participation ensuring the development plan and implementation is in accordance with the needs of the village community. This is in line with the concept mandated by Law No. 6 of 2014 on Villages which gives village authority to manage its assets independently and focuses on capacity building of village communities. During one year assignment, 16 villages managed to complete 4 thematic mapping consisting of Village Territorial Mapping, Settlement Mapping, Land Use Mapping and Social Mapping. The mapping result had been to formulate the official document of Village Long-term Development Plan. Patriot Negeri helped complete the village profile book in 48 villages. While 9 other villages are still in the pre-preparation stage requiring more time to build more active community participation.
In addition to mapping activities, Patriot Negeri also facilitated renewable energy surveys and facility revitalization, clean water system survey and planning, vegetable farming initiatives, product development of agriculture crops and handicraft, waste management for community based tourism, and information technology education. Patriot Negeri program have huge impact on capacity building of the community. Upgraded and up-scaled local products including white pepper, rattan bracelet and other handicrafts, fermented shrimp paste, virgin coconut oil, raw forest honey, and various chips. Countless community members have been involved in the mapping process, trainings, local product exhibition, and other communal and youth activities.
Clean water for Kedung Ombo
Kedung Ombo Reservoir, located in Central Java, was built for a 22.5 MW hydro power plant in 1980’s as a lighthouse project of Soeharto regime financed by USD 156 million from the World Bank, USD 25.2 million from the Exim Bank of Japan, and the State Budget. This project, however, sank 37 villages, 7 sub-districts in 3 regency. A total of 5268 families lost their land, properties and livelihoods due to the construction of this reservoir. The local community was forced to accept a very low compensation for eviction and resettlement through intimidation and force. This is a huge case that is still not finished until today. In 2001, the victims demanded that the Governor of Central Java reopen the Kedung Ombo case and renegotiate land compensation. However, the Provincial and Local Governments insist that the land compensation issue had been resolved.
Nearly 87% of affected people worked as farmers that owned arable land and hired local farm laborers. The project caused a transition within the community as some of them are still farming on the hilly area, while others became fishermen that cultivate fish from the reservoir, and the rest found work at nearby factories. However, it was very difficult for them to change their means livelihood due to lack of skill, expertise and assets. After 30 years, residents in the reservoir area are still trapped in poverty.
IBEKA came to visit Gunungsono Hamlet, Gilirejo Village, Sragen Regency, one of the affected areas of Kedung Ombo Reservoir Project. In Gunungsono Hamlet, many people now still live in semi- permanent houses, with wooden walls, bamboo and a little brick. Some floors of the houses are bare soil with only small portion has been cemented. Many parts of the roof of the houses are also damaged.
During dry season, the people experience drought. While the men are working to earn money, the women have to go up and down the hill looking for sources of water. They depend on clean water delivery from outside the area which is limited that sometimes causes conflicts between residents. Some people end up using muddy reservoir water for bathing and washing which are carried out alongside the reservoir. Furthermore, the yields from agricultural and fishery activities were very dependent on rainwater and tidal reservoir water.
The community was always suspicious of new people who came with a project that would not benefit the local people. The IBEKA team initially lived in with local community for 3 months in order to gain trust and map key stakeholders in the community. IBEKA proposed participatory spatial, social and sectoral mapping to understand local community problems and potential resources. The participatory mapping activities was important to ensure that the program designed by IBEKA later on is a strategic entry point for poverty alleviation. IBEKA team facilitated the community during mapping process. It was concluded that clean water necessity was the main issue that the community were willing to act upon together.
IBEKA managed to obtain funding for a clean water project in Gunungsono. We developed a solar power plant to support pumping units to supply water from Kedung Ombo Reservoir to the settlement area. The project was carried out in participatory ways. Involving the community starting from planning phase, such as survey and deciding the location of the facility. The detailed engineering design (DED) was finalized based on discussion with the community regarding the historical data of tidal reservoir water and also negotiation with some residents for water distribution pipelines. People did weekly communal work during the construction phase including land preparation on the construction site, road access, and piping installation. The forming of local organization who manage the facility was also done through public decision-making process. IBEKA facilitated the whole process of communicating with four neighborhoods in Gunungsono Hamlet to minimize any possibility of conflicts. Previously, the neighborhoods did not get along well due to political condition during village head election.
IBEKA finished installation of two pumping units driven by 27.75 kWp solar panels in January 2020. The water pumped from Kedung Ombo Reservoir to the water treatment plant, and then distributed to 194 houses, bringing clean water to 1100 people in Gunungsono Hamlet every day. The operation and maintenance are carried out by the local organization named Tirta Mulia Gunungsono with assistance from IBEKA. Operators are the citizens who had been involved in the construction phase, IBEKA ensure that they have sufficient knowledge to operate, maintain and repair the facility when damage occurs. The local organization also consists of representatives from each neighborhood in Gunungsono Hamlet, so that the community work together to sustain the clean water system facility.
After villagers have running water in their houses, the women experience less back pain from carrying water every day. They have more time for productive activities. Many ideas came up along with the accessible running water. Backyard vegetable farming for daily needs, making tarpaulin catfish pond and fish nursery, home laundry business, even ideas for developing tourism site nearby the reservoir. The youth of Gunungsono were inspired to work together on a project that will improve the livelihood in the village. They agreed on forming youth association and then successfully organizing an event to raise awareness of youth people about the potential resources in the village that can be developed for source of income. They wanted to develop a tourism site by the reservoir, started from building a tree house near the clean water system facility supported by IBEKA.
The participatory approach was expected to increase the sense of community ownership that will ensure the sustainability of the clean water system facility. It was proven by the enthusiasm of the people in supporting the project, the communal work, the public decision-making process to reach agreement on the management of the clean water system facility. Finally, the clean water project successfully motivated the villagers to take part more actively in improving the livelihood in the village.
Empowering Islamic Boarding School in Madura with Solar Power Plant
The Annuqayah Islamic boarding school is one of the oldest boarding schools in Indonesia, located in Guluk-Guluk Village, Madura Island, East Java. Founded in 1887 as an informal educational institution to accommodate people who were interested in studying Islam, Annuqayah is now a federation boarding school consiting of 17 boarding school institutions ranging from kindergarten to college level.
In the early years, students built their own housing out of bamboo near the school. However, nowadays approximately 6000 students are living and studying in Annuqayah boarding facilities and additional 3000 students live in the nearby area. Most of the students come from middle-low income families, as the Annuqayah Foundation has never rejected a student and has been running the schools with a very low tuition, as low as 6 USD per year up to the highest 35 USD per year. Although the tuition fee varies across the school institutions, Annuqayah Foundation receives subsidy from the government which support the daily operation of the boarding schools. There is also a unique culture of alumni to coming back to the school after graduation to teaching or work as staff of the boarding school institution voluntarily. Still, the condition of boarding facility is heartbreaking. A room of 12 square meters are usually occupied by 20 students and five students are used to share a bowl of instant noodle and rice for one meal.
IBEKA has a long history with the Annuqayah foundation. In 1979, the founder of IBEKA built clean water system for the schools. After 38 years, IBEKA has come back to the Annuqayah boarding school to build a solar power plant after obtaining funding for solar power development project for several schools in East Java.
Initially, IBEKA sent a team of engineers and social workers to facilitate participatory mapping activities to make a spatial map as preliminary data for designing the solar power plant system and electricity distribution. The Annuqayah Foundation already has a specific institution called the Balai Pengabdian Masyarakat (BPM) or Community Service Center that manages the students to be volunteering in activities contribute that to Annuqayah foundation, including this project. The mapping activities were done using GPS and software, which was responded well by the volunteering students who wanted to learn new skill.
IBEKA facilitated the discussion between the leaders of Annuqayah boarding schools to decide the location of the solar power plant, distribution area, beneficiaries and also management system for the facility. Location of the solar panels was agreed at the available space on the rooftop of the school building close to the main beneficiaries of the boarding school with the lowest tuition fee. The location was selected also considered giving access for students who wants to study about the solar power plant.
During the construction phase, IBEKA team conducted several seminars for high school students of Annuqayah, introducing the solar power plant system to promote renewable energy to young generation. The students are very enthusiast about getting new knowledge and skills.
IBEKA installed 30 kWp on-grid solar power plant, cut down about 20% of electricity bill paid by Annuqayah foundation to the national electricity company. This helped the foundation to also decrease the tuition fee even more. IBEKA facilitated the decision-making process related to determining the electricity tariff to be paid by benefited boarding schools. IBEKA also installed separated off-grid solar powered pumping system for clean water supply in the boarding facility area, which access to clean water was very limited before.
IBEKA managed to conduct training about renewable energy and practicum session of the solar power plant several times that were attended by approximately 250 students in total as representatives from high schools under Annuqayah Foundation. The project has creating values of improving quality of life for the boarding school students coming from disadvantaged community and strengthening social capital of the institution while bringing in new knowledge and insight of green energy.